A Labour party spokesperson said in a statement: “A small number of accounts are identified, some of which are not Labour members or supporters, and others have been expelled or suspended.

“The analysis does not look at pro-Labour social media as a whole, and therefore does not include the main Labour-supporting accounts that actively call out such bigotry. We stand in solidarity with Jewish communities, and are committed to rooting out antisemitism from our party and wider society.”

Anti-racism campaigners Hope Not Hate shared the report online, writing: “The findings of the @CST_UK report echo what we’ve found too: antisemitism exists online amongst Labour supporters in different guises but there is a small hardcore group using and promoting antisemitic content, and it is poisonous.”

“While the hardcore is small, there is a larger group of users proactively trolling and smearing Jews who call antisemitism out (often using antisemitic tropes to do so), and there is a larger group still who engage in denialism and gaslighting,” the campaign group added.